Assembly HOWTO <author>François-René Rideau <tt>fare@tunes.org</tt> <date>v0.4q, 22 June 1999 <abstract> This is the Linux Assembly HOWTO. This document describes how to program in assembly using <em>FREE</em> programming tools, focusing on development for or from the Linux Operating System on i386 platforms. Included material may or may not be applicable to other hardware and/or software platforms. Contributions about these would be gladly accepted. <em>keywords</em>: assembly, assembler, free, macroprocessor, preprocessor, asm, inline asm, 32-bit, x86, i386, gas, as86, nasm </abstract> <toc> <sect>INTRODUCTION <sect1>Legal Blurp <p> Copyright © 1996-1999 by François-René Rideau. This document is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. <sect1>Important Note <p> This is an interactively evolving document: you are especially invited to ask questions, to answer to questions, to correct given answers, to add new FAQ answers, to give pointers to other software, to point the current maintainer to bugs or deficiencies in the pages. If you're motivated, you could even <em>take over the maintenance of the HOWTO</em>. In one word, contribute! To contribute, please contact whoever appears to maintain the Assembly-HOWTO. At the time of this writing, it's me, i.e. <url url="mailto:fare@tunes.org" name="François-René Rideau">. <!-- Rahim Azizarab (rahim@megsinet.net) and Paul Anderson (paul@geeky1.ebtech.net) each volonteered once, but of no avail --> However, it's been some time since I've been looking for a serious hacker to replace me as maintainer of this document. Disadvantages are you must spend some time updating and correcting the document, and learning the LDP publication tools. Advantages are you get some fame <em>and</em> you can receive complimentary copies of HOWTO compendiums. <sect1>Foreword <p> This document aims at answering frequently asked questions of people who program or want to program 32-bit x86 assembly using <em><htmlurl url="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy" name="free software"></em>, particularly under the Linux operating system. It may also point to other documents about non-free, non-x86, or non-32-bit assemblers, though such is not its primary goal. Because the main interest of assembly programming is to build to write the guts of operating systems, interpreters, compilers, and games, where a C compiler fails to provide the needed expressiveness (performance is more and more seldom an issue), we stress on development of such software. <sect2>How to use this document <p> This document contains answers to some frequently asked questions. At many places, Universal Resource Locators (URL) are given for some software or documentation repository. Please see that the most useful repositories are mirrored, and that by accessing a nearer mirror site, you relieve the whole Internet from unneeded network traffic, while saving your own precious time. Particularly, there are large repositories all over the world, that mirror other popular repositories. You should learn and note what are those places near you (networkwise). Sometimes, the list of mirrors is listed in a file, or in a login message. Please heed the advice. Else, you should ask archie about the software you're looking for... The most recent version for this documents sits in <url url="http://www.tunes.org/~fare/files/asm/Assembly-HOWTO.en.sgml"> but what's in Linux HOWTO repositories should be fairly up to date, too (I can't know): <url url="http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/HOWTO/">. A french translation of this HOWTO can be found around <url url="ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/linux/french/HOWTO/">. <sect2>Other related documents <p> <itemize> <item>If you don't know what <em>free</em> software is, please do read <em>carefully</em> the GNU General Public License, which is used in a lot of free software, and is a model for most of their licenses. It generally comes in a file named <tt>COPYING</tt>, with a library version in a file named <tt>COPYING.LIB</tt>. Literature from the <url url="http://www.fsf.org" name="FSF"> (free software foundation) might help you, too. <item>Particularly, the interesting kind of free software comes with sources that you can consult and correct, or sometimes even borrow from. Read your particular license carefully, and do comply to it. <item>There is a FAQ for comp.lang.asm.x86 that answers generic questions about x86 assembly programming, and questions about some commercial assemblers in a 16-bit DOS environment. Some of it apply to free 32-bit asm programming, so you may want to read this <url url="http://www2.dgsys.com/˜raymoon/faq/asmfaq.zip" name="FAQ">... <item>FAQs and docs exist about programming on your favorite platform, whichever it is, that you should consult for platform-specific issues not directly related to programming in assembler. </itemize> <sect1>History <p> Each version includes a few fixes and minor corrections, which needs not be repeatedly mentionned every time. <descrip> <tag>Version 0.1 23 Apr 1996</tag> Francois-Rene "Faré" Rideau <fare@tunes.org> creates and publishes the first mini-HOWTO, because ``I'm sick of answering ever the same questions on comp.lang.asm.x86'' <tag>Version 0.2 4 May 1996</tag> * <tag>Version 0.3c 15 Jun 1996</tag> * <tag>Version 0.3f 17 Oct 1996</tag> * <tag>Version 0.3g 2 Nov 1996</tag> Created the History. Added pointers in cross-compiling section. Added section about I/O programming under Linux (particularly video). <tag>Version 0.3h 6 Nov 1996</tag> more about cross-compiling -- See on sunsite: devel/msdos/ <tag>Version 0.3i 16 Nov 1996</tag> NASM is getting pretty slick <tag>Version 0.3j 24 Nov 1996</tag> point to french translated version <tag>Version 0.3k 19 Dec 1996</tag> What? I had forgotten to point to terse??? <tag>Version 0.3l 11 Jan 1997</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4pre1 13 Jan 1997</tag> text mini-HOWTO transformed into a full linuxdoc-sgml HOWTO, to see what the SGML tools are like. <tag>Version 0.4 20 Jan 1997</tag> first release of the HOWTO as such. <tag>Version 0.4a 20 Jan 1997</tag> CREDITS section added <tag>Version 0.4b 3 Feb 1997</tag> NASM moved: now is before AS86 <tag>Version 0.4c 9 Feb 1997</tag> Added section "DO YOU NEED ASSEMBLY?" <tag>Version 0.4d 28 Feb 1997</tag> Vapor announce of a new Assembly-HOWTO maintainer. <tag>Version 0.4e 13 Mar 1997</tag> Release for DrLinux <tag>Version 0.4f 20 Mar 1997</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4g 30 Mar 1997</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4h 19 Jun 1997</tag> still more on "how not to use assembly"; updates on NASM, GAS. <tag>Version 0.4i 17 July 1997</tag> info on 16-bit mode access from Linux. <tag>Version 0.4j 7 September 1997</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4k 19 October 1997</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4l 16 November 1997</tag> release for LSL 6th edition. <tag>Version 0.4m 23 March 1998</tag> corrections about gcc invocation <tag>Version 0.4o 1 December 1998</tag> * <tag>Version 0.4p 6 June 1999</tag> clean up and updates. <tag>Version 0.4q 22 June 1999</tag> process argument passing (argc,argv,environ) in assembly. This is yet another ``last release by Faré before new maintainer takes over''. Only nobody knows who the new maintainer might be. </descrip> <sect1>Credits <p> I would like to thanks the following persons, by order of appearance: <itemize> <item><url url="mailto:buried.alive@in.mail" name="Linus Torvalds"> for Linux <item><url url="mailto:bde@zeta.org.au" name="Bruce Evans"> for bcc from which as86 is extracted <item><url url="mailto:anakin@pobox.com" name="Simon Tatham"> and <url url="mailto:jules@earthcorp.com" name="Julian Hall"> for NASM <item><url url="mailto:gregh@metalab.unc.edu" name="Greg Hankins"> and now <url url="mailto:linux-howto@metalab.unc.edu" name="Tim Bynum"> for maintaining HOWTOs <item><url url="mailto:raymoon@moonware.dgsys.com" name="Raymond Moon"> for his FAQ <item><url url="mailto:dumas@linux.eu.org" name="Eric Dumas"> for his translation of the mini-HOWTO into french (sad thing for the original author to be french and write in english) <item><url url="mailto:paul@geeky1.ebtech.net" name="Paul Anderson"> and <url url="mailto:rahim@megsinet.net" name="Rahim Azizarab"> for helping me, if not for taking over the HOWTO. <item><url url="mailto:pcg@goof.com" name="Marc Lehman"> for his insight on GCC invocation. <item><url url="mailto:ams@wiw.org" name="Abhijit Menon-Sen"> for helping me figure out the process argument passing convention <item>All the people who have contributed ideas, remarks, and moral support. </itemize> <sect>DO YOU NEED ASSEMBLY?<label id="doyouneedasm"> <p> Well, I wouldn't want to interfere with what you're doing, but here are a few advice from hard-earned experience. <sect1>Pros and Cons <p> <sect2>The advantages of Assembly <p> Assembly can express very low-level things: <itemize> <item>you can access machine-dependent registers and I/O. <item>you can control the exact behavior of code in critical sections that might otherwise involve deadlock between multiple software threads or hardware devices. <item>you can break the conventions of your usual compiler, which might allow some optimizations (like temporarily breaking rules about memory allocation, threading, calling conventions, etc). <item>you can build interfaces between code fragments using incompatible such conventions (e.g. produced by different compilers, or separated by a low-level interface). <item>you can get access to unusual programming modes of your processor (e.g. 16 bit mode to interface startup, firmware, or legacy code on Intel PCs) <item>you can produce reasonably fast code for tight loops to cope with a bad non-optimizing compiler (but then, there are free optimizing compilers available!) <item>you can produce code where (but only on CPUs with known instruction timings, which generally excludes all current .... <item>you can produce hand-optimized code that's perfectly tuned for your particular hardware setup, though not to anyone else's. <item>you can write some code for your new language's optimizing compiler (that's something few will ever do, and even they, not often). </itemize> <p> <sect2>The disadvantages of Assembly <p> Assembly is a very low-level language (the lowest above hand-coding the binary instruction patterns). This means <itemize> <item>it's long and tedious to write initially, <item>it's very bug-prone, <item>your bugs will be very difficult to chase, <item>it's very difficult to understand and modify, i.e. to maintain. <item>the result is very non-portable to other architectures, existing or future, <item>your code will be optimized only for a certain implementation of a same architecture: for instance, among Intel-compatible platforms, each CPU design and its variations (relative latency, throughput, and capacity, of processing units, caches, RAM, bus, disks, presence of FPU, MMX extensions, etc) implies potentially completely different optimization techniques. CPU designs already include Intel 386, 486, Pentium, PPro, Pentium II; Cyrix 5x86, 6x86; AMD K5, K6. New designs keep popping up, so don't expect either this listing or your code to be up-to-date. <item>your code might also be unportable accross different OS platforms on the same architecture, by lack of proper tools. (well, GAS seems to work on all platforms; NASM seems to work or be workable on all intel platforms). <item>you spend more time on a few details, and can't focus on small and large algorithmic design, that are known to bring the largest part of the speed up. [e.g. you might spend some time building very fast list/array manipulation primitives in assembly; only a hash table would have sped up your program much more; or, in another context, a binary tree; or some high-level structure distributed over a cluster of CPUs] <item>a small change in algorithmic design might completely invalidate all your existing assembly code. So that either you're ready (and able) to rewrite it all, or you're tied to a particular algorithmic design; <item>On code that ain't too far from what's in standard benchmarks, commercial optimizing compilers outperform hand-coded assembly (well, that's less true on the x86 architecture than on RISC architectures, and perhaps less true for widely available/free compilers; anyway, for typical C code, GCC is fairly good); <item>And in any case, as says moderator John Levine on comp.compilers, ``compilers make it a lot easier to use complex data structures, and compilers don't get bored halfway through and generate reliably pretty good code.'' They will also <em>correctly</em> propagate code transformations throughout the whole (huge) program when optimizing code between procedures and module boundaries. </itemize> <p> <sect2>Assessment <p> All in all, you might find that though using assembly is sometimes needed, and might even be useful in a few cases where it is not, you'll want to: <itemize> <item>minimize the use of assembly code, <item>encapsulate this code in well-defined interfaces <item>have your assembly code automatically generated from patterns expressed in a higher-level language than assembly (e.g. GCC inline assembly macros). <item>have automatic tools translate these programs into assembly code <item>have this code be optimized if possible <item>All of the above, i.e. write (an extension to) an optimizing compiler back-end. </itemize> Even in cases when Assembly is needed (e.g. OS development), you'll find that not so much of it is, and that the above principles hold. See the sources for the Linux kernel about it: as little assembly as needed, resulting in a fast, reliable, portable, maintainable OS. Even a successful game like DOOM was almost massively written in C, with a tiny part only being written in assembly for speed up. <sect1>How to NOT use Assembly <p> <sect2>General procedure to achieve efficient code <p> As says Charles Fiterman on comp.compilers about human vs computer-generated assembly code, ``The human should always win and here is why. <itemize> <item>First the human writes the whole thing in a high level language. <item>Second he profiles it to find the hot spots where it spends its time. <item>Third he has the compiler produce assembly for those small sections of code. <item>Fourth he hand tunes them looking for tiny improvements over the machine generated code. </itemize> The human wins because he can use the machine.'' <sect2>Languages with optimizing compilers <p> Languages like ObjectiveCAML, SML, CommonLISP, Scheme, ADA, Pascal, C, C++, among others, all have free optimizing compilers that'll optimize the bulk of your programs, and often do better than hand-coded assembly even for tight loops, while allowing you to focus on higher-level details, and without forbidding you to grab a few percent of extra performance in the above-mentionned way, once you've reached a stable design. Of course, there are also commercial optimizing compilers for most of these languages, too! Some languages have compilers that produce C code, which can be further optimized by a C compiler. LISP, Scheme, Perl, and many other are suches. Speed is fairly good. <sect2>General procedure to speed your code up <p> As for speeding code up, you should do it only for parts of a program that a profiling tool has consistently identified as being a performance bottleneck. Hence, if you identify some code portion as being too slow, you should <itemize> <item>first try to use a better algorithm; <item>then try to compile it rather than interpret it; <item>then try to enable and tweak optimization from your compiler; <item>then give the compiler hints about how to optimize (typing information in LISP; register usage with GCC; lots of options in most compilers, etc). <item>then possibly fallback to assembly programming </itemize> Finally, before you end up writing assembly, you should inspect generated code, to check that the problem really is with bad code generation, as this might really not be the case: compiler-generated code might be better than what you'd have written, particularly on modern multi-pipelined architectures! Slow parts of a program might be intrinsically so. Biggest problems on modern architectures with fast processors are due to delays from memory access, cache-misses, TLB-misses, and page-faults; register optimization becomes useless, and you'll more profitably re-think data structures and threading to achieve better locality in memory access. Perhaps a completely different approach to the problem might help, then. <sect2>Inspecting compiler-generated code <p> There are many reasons to inspect compiler-generated assembly code. Here are what you'll do with such code: <itemize> <item>check whether generated code can be obviously enhanced with hand-coded assembly (or by tweaking compiler switches) <item>when that's the case, start from generated code and modify it instead of starting from scratch <item>more generally, use generated code as stubs to modify, which at least gets right the way your assembly routines interface to the external world <item>track down bugs in your compiler (hopefully rarer) </itemize> The standard way to have assembly code be generated is to invoke your compiler with the <tt>-S</tt> flag. This works with most Unix compilers, including the GNU C Compiler (GCC), but YMMV. As for GCC, it will produce more understandable assembly code with the <tt>-fverbose-asm</tt> command-line option. Of course, if you want to get good assembly code, don't forget your usual optimization options and hints! <sect>ASSEMBLERS <p> <sect1>GCC Inline Assembly <p> The well-known GNU C/C++ Compiler (GCC), an optimizing 32-bit compiler at the heart of the GNU project, supports the x86 architecture quite well, and includes the ability to insert assembly code in C programs, in such a way that register allocation can be either specified or left to GCC. GCC works on most available platforms, notably Linux, *BSD, VSTa, OS/2, *DOS, Win*, etc. <sect2>Where to find GCC <p> The original GCC site is the GNU FTP site <url url="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/gcc/"> together with all the released application software from the GNU project. Linux-configured and precompiled versions can be found in <url url="ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/GCC/"> There exists a lot of FTP mirrors of both sites. everywhere around the world, as well as CD-ROM copies. GCC development has split in two branches some time ago, but they will merge back soon. See more about the experimental version, egcs, at <url url="http://www.cygnus.com/egcs/"> Sources adapted to your favorite OS, and binaries precompiled for it, should be found at your usual FTP sites. For most popular DOS port of GCC is named DJGPP, and can be found in directories of such name in FTP sites. See: <url url="http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/"> There is also a port of GCC to OS/2 named EMX, that also works under DOS, and includes lots of unix-emulation library routines. See around the following site: <url url="ftp://ftp-os2.cdrom.com/pub/os2/emx09c/">. Other URLs listed in previous versions of this HOWTO seem to be as dead as OS/2. <!-- broken url url="http://www.leo.org/pub/comp/os/os2/gnu/emx+gcc/"--> <!-- broken url url="http://warp.eecs.berkeley.edu/os2/software/shareware/emx.html"--> <sect2>Where to find docs for GCC Inline Asm <p> The documentation of GCC includes documentation files in texinfo format. You can compile them with tex and print then result, or convert them to .info, and browse them with emacs, or convert them to .html, or nearly whatever you like. convert (with the right tools) to whatever you like, or just read as is. The .info files are generally found on any good installation for GCC. The right section to look for is: <tt>C Extensions::Extended Asm::</tt> Section <tt>Invoking GCC::Submodel Options::i386 Options::</tt> might help too. Particularly, it gives the i386 specific constraint names for registers: abcdSDB correspond to <tt>%eax</tt>, <tt>%ebx</tt>, <tt>%ecx</tt>, <tt>%edx</tt>, <tt>%esi</tt>, <tt>%edi</tt>, <tt>%ebp</tt> respectively (no letter for <tt>%esp</tt>). The DJGPP Games resource (not only for game hackers) had this page specifically about assembly, but it's down. Its data have nonetheless been recovered on the <url url="http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/" name="DJGPP site">, that contains a mine of other useful information: <url url="http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/doc/brennan/"> <!-- broken url url="http://www.rt66.com/˜brennan/djgpp/djgpp_asm.html"--> <!-- broken url url="http://remus.rutgers.edu/˜avly/djasm.html" name="DJGPP Quick ASM Programming Guide" --> GCC depends on GAS for assembling, and follow its syntax (see below); do mind that inline asm needs percent characters to be quoted so they be passed to GAS. See the section about GAS below. Find <em>lots</em> of useful examples in the <tt>linux/include/asm-i386/</tt> subdirectory of the sources for the Linux kernel. <sect2>Invoking GCC to have it properly inline assembly code ? <p> Because assembly routines from the kernel headers (and most likely your own headers, if you try making your assembly programming as clean as it is in the linux kernel) are embedded in <tt>extern inline</tt> functions, GCC must be invoked with the <tt>-O</tt> flag (or <tt>-O2</tt>, <tt>-O3</tt>, etc), for these routines to be available. If not, your code may compile, but not link properly, since it will be looking for non-inlined <tt>extern</tt> functions in the libraries against which your program is being linked !!! Another way is to link against libraries that include fallback versions of the routines. Inline assembly can be disabled with <tt>-fno-asm</tt>, which will have the compiler die when using extended inline asm syntax, or else generate calls to an external function named <tt>asm()</tt> that the linker can't resolve. To counter such flag, <tt>-fasm</tt> restores treatment of the <tt>asm</tt> keyword. More generally, good compile flags for GCC on the x86 platform are <code> gcc -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -W -Wall </code> <tt>-O2</tt> is the good optimization level in most cases. Optimizing besides it takes longer, and yields code that is a lot larger, but only a bit faster; such overoptimization might be useful for tight loops only (if any), which you may be doing in assembly anyway. In cases when you need really strong compiler optimization for a few files, do consider using up to <tt>-O6</tt>. <tt>-fomit-frame-pointer</tt> allows generated code to skip the stupid frame pointer maintenance, which makes code smaller and faster, and frees a register for further optimizations. It precludes the easy use of debugging tools (<tt>gdb</tt>), but when you use these, you just don't care about size and speed anymore anyway. <tt>-W -Wall</tt> enables all warnings and helps you catch obvious stupid errors. You can add some cpu-specific <tt>-m486</tt> or such flag so that GCC will produce code that is more adapted to your precise computer. Note that EGCS (and perhaps GCC 2.8) have <tt>-mpentium</tt> and such flags, whereas GCC 2.7.x and older versions do not. A good choice of CPU-specific flags should be in the Linux kernel. Check the texinfo documentation of your current GCC installation for more. <tt>-m386</tt> will help optimize for size, hence also for speed on computers whose memory is tight and/or loaded, since big programs cause swap, which more than counters any "optimization" intended by the larger code. In such settings, it might be useful to stop using C, and use instead a language that favors code factorization, such as a functional language and/or FORTH, and use a bytecode- or wordcode- based implementation. Note that you can vary code generation flags from file to file, so that performance-critical files use maximal optimization, whereas other files be optimized for size. To optimize even more, option <tt>-mregparm=2</tt> and/or corresponding function attribute might help, but might pose lots of problems when linking to foreign code, <em>including the libc</em>. There are ways to correctly declare foreign functions so the right call sequences be generated, or you might want to recompile the foreign libraries to use the same register-based calling convention... Note that you can add make these flags the default by editing file <tt>/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i486-linux/2.7.2.3/specs</tt> or wherever that is on your system (better not add -Wall there, though). The exact location of the GCC specs files on <em>your</em> system can be found by asking <tt>gcc -v</tt>. <sect1>GAS <p> GAS is the GNU Assembler, that GCC relies upon. <sect2>Where to find it <p> Find it at the same place where you found GCC, in a package named binutils. <sect2>What is this AT&T syntax <p> Because GAS was invented to support a 32-bit unix compiler, it uses standard ``AT&T'' syntax, which resembles a lot the syntax for standard m68k assemblers, and is standard in the UNIX world. This syntax is no worse, no better than the ``Intel'' syntax. It's just different. When you get used to it, you find it much more regular than the Intel syntax, though a bit boring. Here are the major caveats about GAS syntax: <itemize> <item> Register names are prefixed with <tt>%</tt>, so that registers are <tt>%eax</tt>, <tt>%dl</tt> and suches instead of just <tt>eax</tt>, <tt>dl</tt>, etc. This makes it possible to include external C symbols directly in assembly source, without any risk of confusion, or any need for ugly underscore prefixes. <item> The order of operands is source(s) first, and destination last, as opposed to the intel convention of destination first and sources last. Hence, what in intel syntax is <tt>mov ax,dx</tt> (move contents of register <tt>dx</tt> into register <tt>ax</tt>) will be in att syntax <tt>mov %dx, %ax</tt>. <item> The operand length is specified as a suffix to the instruction name. The suffix is <tt>b</tt> for (8-bit) byte, <tt>w</tt> for (16-bit) word, and <tt>l</tt> for (32-bit) long. For instance, the correct syntax for the above instruction would have been <tt>movw %dx,%ax</tt>. However, gas does not require strict att syntax, so the suffix is optional when length can be guessed from register operands, and else defaults to 32-bit (with a warning). <item> Immediate operands are marked with a <tt>$</tt> prefix, as in <tt>addl $5,%eax</tt> (add immediate long value 5 to register <tt>%eax</tt>). <item> No prefix to an operand indicates it is a memory-address; hence <tt>movl $foo,%eax</tt> puts the <em>address</em> of variable <tt>foo</tt> in register <tt>%eax</tt>, but <tt>movl foo,%eax</tt> puts the <em>contents</em> of variable <tt>foo</tt> in register <tt>%eax</tt>. <item> Indexing or indirection is done by enclosing the index register or indirection memory cell address in parentheses, as in <tt>testb $0x80,17(%ebp)</tt> (test the high bit of the byte value at offset 17 from the cell pointed to by <tt>%ebp</tt>). </itemize> A program exists to help you convert programs from TASM syntax to AT&T syntax. See <url url="ftp://x2ftp.oulu.fi/pub/msdos/programming/convert/ta2asv08.zip">. (Since the original x2ftp site is closing, use a <url url="ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/pc/x2ftp/README.mirror_sites" name="mirror site">). There also exists a program for the reverse conversion: <url url="http://www.multimania.com/placr/a2i.html">. GAS has comprehensive documentation in TeXinfo format, which comes at least with the source distribution. Browse extracted .info pages with Emacs or whatever. There used to be a file named gas.doc or as.doc around the GAS source package, but it was merged into the TeXinfo docs. Of course, in case of doubt, the ultimate documentation is the sources themselves! A section that will particularly interest you is <tt>Machine Dependencies::i386-Dependent::</tt> Again, the sources for Linux (the OS kernel), come in as good examples; see under linux/arch/i386, the following files: <tt>kernel/*.S, boot/compressed/*.S, mathemu/*.S</tt> If you are writing kind of a language, a thread package, etc you might as well see how other languages (OCaml, gforth, etc), or thread packages (QuickThreads, MIT pthreads, LinuxThreads, etc), or whatever, do it. Finally, just compiling a C program to assembly might show you the syntax for the kind of instructions you want. See section <ref id="doyouneedasm" name="Do you need Assembly?"> above. <sect2>Limited 16-bit mode <p> GAS is a 32-bit assembler, meant to support a 32-bit compiler. It currently has only limited support for 16-bit mode, which consists in prepending the 32-bit prefixes to instructions, so you write 32-bit code that runs in 16-bit mode on a 32 bit CPU. In both modes, it supports 16-bit register usage, but what is unsupported is 16-bit addressing. Use the directive <tt>.code16</tt> and <tt>.code32</tt> to switch between modes. Note that an inline assembly statement <tt>asm(&dquot;.code16\n&dquot;)</tt> will allow GCC to produce 32-bit code that'll run in real mode! I've been told that most code needed to fully support 16-bit mode programming was added to GAS by Bryan Ford (please confirm?), but at least, it doesn't show up in any of the distribution I tried, up to binutils-2.8.1.x ... more info on this subject would be welcome. A cheap solution is to define macros (see below) that somehow produce the binary encoding (with <tt>.byte</tt>) for just the 16-bit mode instructions you need (almost nothing if you use code16 as above, and can safely assume the code will run on a 32-bit capable x86 CPU). To find the proper encoding, you can get inspiration from the sources of 16-bit capable assemblers for the encoding. <sect1>GASP <p> GASP is the GAS Preprocessor. It adds macros and some nice syntax to GAS. <sect2>Where to find GASP <p> GASP comes together with GAS in the GNU binutils archive. <sect2>How it works <p> It works as a filter, much like cpp and the like. I have no idea on details, but it comes with its own texinfo documentation, so just browse them (in .info), print them, grok them. GAS with GASP looks like a regular macro-assembler to me. <sect1>NASM <p> The Netwide Assembler project is producing yet another i386 assembler, written in C, that should be modular enough to eventually support all known syntaxes and object formats. <sect2>Where to find NASM <p> <url url="http://www.cryogen.com/Nasm"> Binary release on your usual metalab mirror in <tt>devel/lang/asm/</tt> Should also be available as .rpm or .deb in your usual RedHat/Debian distributions' contrib. <sect2>What it does <p> At the time this HOWTO is written, version 0.98 of NASM is just out. <!-- the current NASM version is 0.98.--> The syntax is Intel-style. Some macroprocessing support is integrated. Supported object file formats are <tt>bin</tt>, <tt>aout</tt>, <tt>coff</tt>, <tt>elf</tt>, <tt>as86</tt>, (DOS) <tt>obj</tt>, <tt>win32</tt>, (their own format) <tt>rdf</tt>. NASM can be used as a backend for the free LCC compiler (support files included). Surely NASM evolves too fast for this HOWTO to be kept up to date. Unless you're using BCC as a 16-bit compiler (which is out of scope of this 32-bit HOWTO), you should definitely use NASM instead of say AS86 or MASM, because it is actively supported online, and runs on all platforms. Note: NASM also comes with a disassembler, NDISASM. Its hand-written parser makes it much faster than GAS, though of course, it doesn't support three bazillion different architectures. For the x86 target, it should be the assembler of choice... <sect1>AS86 <p> AS86 is a 80x86 assembler, both 16-bit and 32-bit, part of Bruce Evans' C Compiler (BCC). It has mostly Intel-syntax, though it differs slightly as for addressing modes. <sect2>Where to get AS86 <p> A completely outdated version of AS86 is distributed by HJLu just to compile the Linux kernel, in a package named bin86 (current version 0.4), available in any Linux GCC repository. But I advise no one to use it for anything else but compiling Linux. This version supports only a hacked minix object file format, which is not supported by the GNU binutils or anything, and it has a few bugs in 32-bit mode, so you really should better keep it only for compiling Linux. The most recent versions by Bruce Evans (bde@zeta.org.au) are published together with the FreeBSD distribution. Well, they were: I could not find the sources from distribution 2.1 on :( Hence, I put the sources at my place: <url url="http://www.tunes.org/~fare/files/asm/bcc-95.3.12.src.tgz"> The Linux/8086 (aka ELKS) project is somehow maintaining bcc (though I don't think they included the 32-bit patches). See around <url url="http://www.linux.org.uk/ELKS-Home/"> (or <url url="http://www.elks.ecs.soton.ac.uk">) and <url url="ftp://linux.mit.edu/pub/linux/ELKS/">. I haven't followed these developments, and would appreciate a reader contributing on this topic. Among other things, these more recent versions, unlike HJLu's, supports Linux GNU a.out format, so you can link you code to Linux programs, and/or use the usual tools from the GNU binutils package to manipulate your data. This version can co-exist without any harm with the previous one (see according question below). BCC from 12 march 1995 and earlier version has a misfeature that makes all segment pushing/popping 16-bit, which is quite annoying when programming in 32-bit mode. I wrote a patch at a time when the TUNES Project used as86: <url url="http://www.tunes.org/~fare/files/asm/as86.bcc.patch.gz">. Bruce Evans accepted this patch, but since as far as I know he hasn't published a new release of bcc, the ones to ask about integrating it (if not done yet) are the ELKS developers. <sect2>How to invoke the assembler? <p> Here's the GNU Makefile entry for using bcc to transform <tt>.s</tt> asm into both GNU a.out <tt>.o</tt> object and <tt>.l</tt> listing: <code> %.o %.l: %.s bcc -3 -G -c -A-d -A-l -A$*.l -o $*.o $< </code> Remove the <tt>%.l</tt>, <tt>-A-l</tt>, and <tt>-A$*.l</tt>, if you don't want any listing. If you want something else than GNU a.out, you can see the docs of bcc about the other supported formats, and/or use the objcopy utility from the GNU binutils package. <sect2>Where to find docs <p> The docs are what is included in the bcc package. I salvaged the man pages that used to be available from the FreeBSD site at <url url="http://www.tunes.org/~fare/files/asm/bcc-95.3.12.src.tgz">. Maybe ELKS developers know better. When in doubt, the sources themselves are often a good docs: it's not very well commented, but the programming style is straightforward. You might try to see how as86 is used in ELKS or Tunes 0.0.0.25... <sect2>What if I can't compile Linux anymore with this new version ? <p> Linus is buried alive in mail, and since HJLu (official bin86 maintainer) chose to write hacks around an obsolete version of as86 instead of building clean code around the latest version, I don't think my patch for compiling Linux with a modern as86 has any chance to be accepted if resubmitted. Now, this shouldn't matter: just keep your as86 from the bin86 package in /usr/bin, and let bcc install the good as86 as /usr/local/libexec/i386/bcc/as where it should be. You never need explicitly call this ``good'' as86, because bcc does everything right, including conversion to Linux a.out, when invoked with the right options; so assemble files exclusively with bcc as a frontend, not directly with as86. <sect1>OTHER ASSEMBLERS <p> These are other, non-regular, options, in case the previous didn't satisfy you (why?), that I don't recommend in the usual (?) case, but that could prove quite useful if the assembler must be integrated in the software you're designing (i.e. an OS or development environment). <sect2>Win32Forth assembler <p> Win32Forth is a <em>free</em> 32-bit ANS FORTH system that successfully runs under Win32s, Win95, Win/NT. It includes a free 32-bit assembler (either prefix or postfix syntax) integrated into the reflective FORTH language. Macro processing is done with the full power of the reflective language FORTH; however, the only supported input and output contexts is Win32For itself (no dumping of .obj file, but you could add that feature yourself, of course). Find it at <url url="ftp://ftp.forth.org/pub/Forth/Compilers/native/windows/Win32For/">. <sect2>Terse <p> <url url="http://www.terse.com" name="Terse"> is a programming tool that provides <em>THE</em> most compact assembler syntax for the x86 family! However, it is evil proprietary software. It is said that there was a project for a free clone somewhere, that was abandonned after worthless pretenses that the syntax would be owned by the original author. Thus, if you're looking for a nifty programming project related to assembly hacking, I invite you to develop a terse-syntax frontend to NASM, if you like that syntax. <sect2>Non-free and/or Non-32bit x86 assemblers. <p> You may find more about them, together with the basics of x86 assembly programming, in Raymond Moon's FAQ for comp.lang.asm.x86: <url url="http://www2.dgsys.com/˜raymoon/faq/asmfaq.zip">. Note that all DOS-based assemblers should work inside the Linux DOS Emulator, as well as other similar emulators, so that if you already own one, you can still use it inside a real OS. Recent DOS-based assemblers also support COFF and/or other object file formats that are supported by the GNU BFD library, so that you can use them together with your free 32-bit tools, perhaps using GNU objcopy (part of the binutils) as a conversion filter. <sect>METAPROGRAMMING/MACROPROCESSING <p> Assembly programming is a bore, but for critical parts of programs. You should use the appropriate tool for the right task, so don't choose assembly when it's not fit; C, OCAML, perl, Scheme, might be a better choice for most of your programming. However, there are cases when these tools do not give a fine enough control on the machine, and assembly is useful or needed. In those case, you'll appreciate a system of macroprocessing and metaprogramming that'll allow recurring patterns to be factored each into a one indefinitely reusable definition, which allows safer programming, automatic propagation of pattern modification, etc. A ``plain'' assembler is often not enough, even when one is doing only small routines to link with C. <sect1>What's integrated into the above <p> Yes I know this section does not contain much useful up-to-date information. Feel free to contribute what you discover the hard way... <sect2>GCC <p> GCC allows (and requires) you to specify register constraints in your ``inline assembly'' code, so the optimizer always know about it; thus, inline assembly code is really made of patterns, not forcibly exact code. Thus, you can make put your assembly into CPP macros, and inline C functions, so anyone can use it in as any C function/macro. Inline functions resemble macros very much, but are sometimes cleaner to use. Beware that in all those cases, code will be duplicated, so only local labels (of <tt>1:</tt> style) should be defined in that asm code. However, a macro would allow the name for a non local defined label to be passed as a parameter (or else, you should use additional meta-programming methods). Also, note that propagating inline asm code will spread potential bugs in them; so watch out doubly for register constraints in such inline asm code. Lastly, the C language itself may be considered as a good abstraction to assembly programming, which relieves you from most of the trouble of assembling. <sect2>GAS <p> GAS has some macro capability included, as detailed in the texinfo docs. Moreover, while GCC recognizes .s files as raw assembly to send to GAS, it also recognizes .S files as files to pipe through CPP before to feed them to GAS. Again and again, see Linux sources for examples. <sect2>GASP <p> It adds all the usual macroassembly tricks to GAS. See its texinfo docs. <sect2>NASM <p> NASM has some macro support, too. See according docs. If you have some bright idea, you might wanna contact the authors, as they are actively developing it. Meanwhile, see about external filters below. <sect2>AS86 <p> It has some simple macro support, but I couldn't find docs. Now the sources are very straightforward, so if you're interested, you should understand them easily. If you need more than the basics, you should use an external filter (see below). <sect2>OTHER ASSEMBLERS <p> <itemize> <item> Win32FORTH: CODE and END-CODE are normal that do not switch from interpretation mode to compilation mode, so you have access to the full power of FORTH while assembling. <item> TUNES: it doesn't work yet, but the Scheme language is a real high-level language that allows arbitrary meta-programming. </itemize> <sect1>External Filters <p> Whatever is the macro support from your assembler, or whatever language you use (even C !), if the language is not expressive enough to you, you can have files passed through an external filter with a Makefile rule like that: <code> %.s: %.S other_dependencies $(FILTER) $(FILTER_OPTIONS) < $< > $@ </code> <sect2>CPP <p> CPP is truely not very expressive, but it's enough for easy things, it's standard, and called transparently by GCC. As an example of its limitations, you can't declare objects so that destructors are automatically called at the end of the declaring block; you don't have diversions or scoping, etc. CPP comes with any C compiler. However, considering how mediocre it is, stay away from it if by chance you can make it without C, <sect2>M4 <p> M4 gives you the full power of macroprocessing, with a Turing equivalent language, recursion, regular expressions, etc. You can do with it everything that CPP cannot. See <url url="ftp://ftp.forth.org/pub/Forth/Compilers/native/unix/this4th.tar.gz" name="macro4th (this4th)"> or <url url="ftp://ftp.tunes.org/pub/tunes/obsolete/dist/tunes.0.0.0/tunes.0.0.0.25.src.zip" name="the Tunes 0.0.0.25 sources"> as examples of advanced macroprogramming using m4. However, its disfunctional quoting and unquoting semantics force you to use explicit continuation-passing tail-recursive macro style if you want to do <em>advanced</em> macro programming (which is remindful of TeX -- BTW, has anyone tried to use TeX as a macroprocessor for anything else than typesetting ?). This is NOT worse than CPP that does not allow quoting and recursion anyway. The right version of m4 to get is GNU m4 1.4 (or later if exists), which has the most features and the least bugs or limitations of all. m4 is designed to be slow for anything but the simplest uses, which might still be ok for most assembly programming (you're not writing million-lines assembly programs, are you?). <sect2>Macroprocessing with yer own filter <p> You can write your own simple macro-expansion filter with the usual tools: perl, awk, sed, etc. That's quick to do, and you control everything. But of course, any power in macroprocessing must be earned the hard way. <sect2>Metaprogramming <p> Instead of using an external filter that expands macros, one way to do things is to write programs that write part or all of other programs. For instance, you could use a program outputing source code <itemize> <item> to generate sine/cosine/whatever lookup tables, <item> to extract a source-form representation of a binary file, <item> to compile your bitmaps into fast display routines, <item> to extract documentation, initialization/finalization code, description tables, as well as normal code from the same source files, <item> to have customized assembly code, generated from a perl/shell/scheme script that does arbitrary processing, <item> to propagate data defined at one point only into several cross-referencing tables and code chunks. <item> etc. </itemize> Think about it! <sect3>Backends from compilers <p> Compilers like GCC, SML/NJ, Objective CAML, MIT-Scheme, CMUCL, etc, do have their own generic assembler backend, which you might choose to use, if you intend to generate code semi-automatically from the according languages, or from a language you hack: rather than write great assembly code, you may instead modify a compiler so that it dumps great assembly code! <sect3>The New-Jersey Machine-Code Toolkit <p> There is a project, using the programming language Icon (with an experimental ML version), to build a basis for producing assembly-manipulating code. See around <url url="http://www.cs.virginia.edu/˜nr/toolkit/"> <sect3>TUNES<p> The <url url="http://www.tunes.org/" name="TUNES Project"> for a Free Reflective Computing System is developping its own assembler as an extension to the Scheme language, as part of its development process. It doesn't run at all yet, though help is welcome. The assembler manipulates abstract syntax trees, so it could equally serve as the basis for a assembly syntax translator, a disassembler, a common assembler/compiler back-end, etc. Also, the full power of a real language, Scheme, make it unchallenged as for macroprocessing/metaprograming. <sect>CALLING CONVENTIONS <p> <sect1>Linux <p> <sect2>Linking to GCC <p> That's the preferred way. Check GCC docs and examples from Linux kernel <tt>.S</tt> files that go through gas (not those that go through as86). 32-bit arguments are pushed down stack in reverse syntactic order (hence accessed/popped in the right order), above the 32-bit near return address. <tt>%ebp</tt>, <tt>%esi</tt>, <tt>%edi</tt>, <tt>%ebx</tt> are callee-saved, other registers are caller-saved; <tt>%eax</tt> is to hold the result, or <tt>%edx:%eax</tt> for 64-bit results. FP stack: I'm not sure, but I think it's result in <tt>st(0)</tt>, whole stack caller-saved. Note that GCC has options to modify the calling conventions by reserving registers, having arguments in registers, not assuming the FPU, etc. Check the i386 .info pages. Beware that you must then declare the <tt>cdecl</tt> or <tt>regparm(0)</tt> attribute for a function that will follow standard GCC calling conventions. See in the GCC info pages the section: <tt>C Extensions::Extended Asm::</tt>. See also how Linux defines its asmlinkage macro... <sect2>ELF vs a.out problems <p> Some C compilers prepend an underscore before every symbol, while others do not. Particularly, Linux a.out GCC does such prepending, while Linux ELF GCC does not. If you need cope with both behaviors at once, see how existing packages do. For instance, get an old Linux source tree, the Elk, qthreads, or OCAML... You can also override the implicit C<tt>-></tt>asm renaming by inserting statements like <code> void foo asm(&dquot;bar&dquot;) (void); </code> to be sure that the C function foo will be called really bar in assembly. Note that the utility <tt>objcopy</tt>, from the <tt>binutils</tt> package, should allow you to transform your a.out objects into ELF objects, and perhaps the contrary too, in some cases. More generally, it will do lots of file format conversions. <sect2>Direct Linux syscalls <p> This is specifically <em>NOT</em> recommended, because the conventions change from time to time or from kernel flavor to kernel flavor (cf L4Linux), plus it's not portable, it's a burden to write, it's redundant with the libc effort, AND it precludes fixes and extensions that are made to the libc, like, for instance the <tt>zlibc</tt> package, that does on-the-fly transparent decompression of gzip-compressed files. The standard, recommended way to call Linux system services is, and will stay, to go through the libc. Shared objects should keep your stuff small. And if you really want smaller binaries, do use <tt>#!</tt> stuff, with the interpreter having all the overhead you want to keep out of your binaries. Now, if for some reason, you don't want to link to the libc, go get the libc and understand how it works! After all, you're pretending to replace it, ain't you? You might also take a look at how my <url url="ftp://ftp.forth.org/pub/Forth/Compilers/native/unix/Linux/linux-eforth-1.0e.tar.gz" name="eforth 1.0e"> does it. The sources for Linux come in handy, too, particularly the asm/unistd.h header file, that describes how to do system calls... Basically, you issue an <tt>int $0x80</tt>, with the <tt>__NR_</tt>syscallname number (from <tt>asm/unistd.h</tt>) in <tt>%eax</tt>, and parameters (up to five) in <tt>%ebx</tt>, <tt>%ecx</tt>, <tt>%edx</tt>, <tt>%esi</tt>, <tt>%edi</tt> respectively. Result is returned in <tt>%eax</tt>, with a negative result being an error whose opposite is what libc would put in errno. The user-stack is not touched, so you needn't have a valid one when doing a syscall. As for the invocation arguments passed to a process upon startup, the general principle is that the stack originally contains the number of arguments argc, then the list of pointers that constitute *argv, then a null-terminated sequence of null-terminated variable=value strings. For more details, read the sources of C startup code from your libc (crt0.S or crt1.S), the sources of eforth 1.0e, or those of the linux kernel (exec.c et binfmt_*.c in linux/fs/). <sect2>Hardware I/O under Linux <p> If you want to do direct I/O under Linux, either it's something very simple that needn't OS arbitration, and you should see the <tt>IO-Port-Programming</tt> mini-HOWTO; or it needs a kernel device driver, and you should try to learn more about kernel hacking, device driver development, kernel modules, etc, for which there are other excellent HOWTOs and documents from the LDP. Particularly, if what you want is Graphics programming, then do join one of the <url url="http://www.ggi-project.org/" name="GGI"> or <url url="http://www.XFree86.org/" name="XFree86"> projects. Some people have even done better, writing small and robust XFree86 drivers in an interpreted domain-specific language, <url url="http://www.irisa.fr/compose/gal/" name="GAL">, and achieving the efficiency of hand C-written drivers through partial evaluation (drivers not only not in asm, but not even in C!). The problem is that the partial evaluator they used to achieve efficiency is not itself free software. Any taker for a replacement? Anyway, in all these cases, you'll be better off using GCC inline assembly with the macros from linux/asm/*.h than writing full assembly source files. <sect2>Accessing 16-bit drivers from Linux/i386 <p> Such thing is theoretically possible (proof: see how <url url="http://www.dosemu.org" name="DOSEMU"> can selectively grant hardware port access to programs), and I've heard rumors that someone somewhere did actually do it (in the PCI driver? Some VESA access stuff? ISA PnP? dunno). If you have some more precise information on that, you'll be most welcome. Anyway, good places to look for more information are the Linux kernel sources, DOSEMU sources (and other programs in the <url url="ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/ALPHA/dosemu/" name="DOSEMU repository">), and sources for various low-level programs under Linux... (perhaps GGI if it supports VESA). Basically, you must either use 16-bit protected mode or vm86 mode. The first is simpler to setup, but only works with well-behaved code that won't do any kind of segment arithmetics or absolute segment addressing (particularly addressing segment 0), unless by chance it happens that all segments used can be setup in advance in the LDT. The later allows for more "compatibility" with vanilla 16-bit environments, but requires more complicated handling. In both cases, before you can jump to 16-bit code, you must <itemize> <item>mmap any absolute address used in the 16-bit code (such as ROM, video buffers, DMA targets, and memory-mapped I/O) from /dev/mem to your process' address space, <item>setup the LDT and/or vm86 mode monitor. <item>grab proper I/O permissions from the kernel (see the above section) </itemize> Again, carefully read the source for the stuff contributed to the DOSEMU project, particularly these mini-emulators for running ELKS and/or simple .COM programs under Linux/i386. <sect1>DOS <p> Most DOS extenders come with some interface to DOS services. Read their docs about that, but often, they just simulate <tt>int $0x21</tt> and such, so you do ``as if'' you were in real mode (I doubt they have more than stubs and extend things to work with 32-bit operands; they most likely will just reflect the interrupt into the real-mode or vm86 handler). Docs about DPMI and such (and much more) can be found on <url url="ftp://x2ftp.oulu.fi/pub/msdos/programming/"> (again, the original x2ftp site is closing, so use a <url url="ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/pc/x2ftp/README.mirror_sites" name="mirror site">). DJGPP comes with its own (limited) glibc derivative/subset/replacement, too. It is possible to cross-compile from Linux to DOS, see the devel/msdos/ directory of your local FTP mirror for metalab.unc.edu Also see the MOSS dos-extender from the <url url="http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flux/" name="Flux project"> from university of Utah. Other documents and FAQs are more DOS-centered. We do not recommend DOS development. <sect1>Winblows and suches <p> Hey, this document covers only free software. Ring me when Winblows becomes free, or when there are free dev tools for it! Well, after all there are: <url url="http://www.cygnus.com" name="Cygnus Solutions"> has developped the cygwin32.dll library, for GNU programs to run on MacroShit platforms. Thus, you can use GCC, GAS, all the GNU tools, and many other Unix applications. Have a look around their homepage. I (Faré) don't intend to expand on Losedoze programming, but I'm sure you can find lots of documents about it everywhere... <sect1>Yer very own OS <p> Control being what attract many programmers to assembly, want of OS development is often what leads to or stems from assembly hacking. Note that any system that allows self-development could be qualified an "OS" even though it might run "on top" of an underlying system that multitasking or I/O (much like Linux over Mach or OpenGenera over Unix), etc. <!-- --> Hence, for easier debugging purpose, you might like to develop your ``OS'' first as a process running on top of Linux (despite the slowness), then use the <url url="http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flux/oskit/" name="Flux OS kit"> (which grants use of Linux and BSD drivers in yer own OS) to make it standalone. When your OS is stable, it's still time to write your own hardware drivers if you really love that. This HOWTO will not itself cover topics such as Boot loader code & getting into 32-bit mode, Handling Interrupts, The basics about intel ``protected mode'' or ``V86/R86'' braindeadness, defining your object format and calling conventions. <!-- --> The main place where to find reliable information about that all is source code of existing OSes and bootloaders. Lots of pointers lie in the following WWW page: <url url="http://www.tunes.org/Review/OSes.html"> <sect>TODO & POINTERS <p> <itemize> <item>find someone who has got some time to takeover the maintenance <item>fill incomplete sections <item>add more pointers to software and docs <item>add simple examples from real life to illustrate the syntax, power, and limitations of each proposed solution. <item>ask people to help with this HOWTO <item>perhaps give a few words for assembly on other architectures than i386? <item>A few pointers (in addition to those already in the rest of the HOWTO) <itemize> <item>80x86 CPU family references: <url url="http://www.intel.com/design/pentium/manuals/" name="intel manuals">; <url url="http://www.xs4all.nl/˜feldmann/86bugs.htm" name="bugs">. <item><url url="ftp://ftp.luth.se/pub/msdos/" name="ftp.luth.se"> mirrors the hornet and x2ftp former archives of msdos assembly coding stuff. <item>A few starting points on the web about assembly programming: <url url="http://www.fys.ruu.nl/˜faber/Amain.html" name="Jannes Faber's">; <url url="http://www.qzx.com/library/" name="QZX's">; <url url="http://bewoner.dma.be/JanW" name="JanW's">; <url url="ftp://zfja-gate.fuw.edu.pl/user/net/ka9q/guest/" name="this one (?)"> <item>Fun stuff: <url url="http://www.koth.org" name="CoreWars">, a fun way to learn assembly in general. <item>USENET: <url url="news://comp.lang.asm.x86" name="comp.lang.asm.x86">; <url url="news://alt.os.assembly" name="alt.os.assembly">. </itemize> <item>And of course, do use your usual Internet Search Tools to look for more information, and tell me anything interesting you find! </itemize> <!--FOOTER--> Author's .sig: <verb> ## Faré | VN: Уng-Vû Bân | Join the TUNES project! http://www.tunes.org/ ## ## FR: François-René Rideau | TUNES is a Useful, Not Expedient System ## ## Reflection&Cybernethics | Project for a Free Reflective Computing System ## </verb> </article>